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Ancient Greek I: A 21st Century Approach

("In this elementary textbook, Philip S. Peek draws on his twenty-five years of teaching experience to present the ancient Greek language in an imaginative and accessible way that promotes creativity, deep learning, and diversity.

The course is built on three pillars: memory, analysis, and logic.

Readers memorize the top 250 most frequently occurring ancient Greek words, the essential word endings, the eight parts of speech, and the grammatical concepts they will most frequently encounter when reading authentic ancient texts.

Analysis and logic exercises enable the translation and parsing of genuine ancient Greek sentences, with compelling reading selections in English and in Greek offering starting points for contemplation, debate, and reflection.

A series of embedded Learning Tips help teachers and students to think in practical and imaginative ways about how they learn.

This combination of memory-based learning and concept- and skill-based learning gradually builds the confidence of the reader, teaching them how to learn by guiding them from a familiarity with the basics to proficiency in reading this beautiful language.

Ancient Greek I: A 21st-Century Approach is written for high-school and university students, but is an instructive and rewarding text for anyone who wishes to learn ancient Greek.




("GE is a digital resource for students of the 21st century who know English and want to learn Greek.

Every explanation and exercise has been designed and tested to make translation from English to Greek (or Greek to English) as smooth and direct as possible. Sometimes we make use of the tools of the nineteenth century, because they are still the most effective tools we know. Understanding the sounds of letters and parts of speech remains straightforward and powerful, but we use these tools purposefully. AGE is a gateway to learning a rich and fascinating language.


To promote increased student engagement with the Greek language as they move through the core material of AGE, each lesson chapter includes: A list of key terms and concepts at the end of each lesson chapter, to facilitate an understanding of how Greek works as a language. -- References to the section numbers in Greek Grammar, by H.W. Smyth (abbreviated as “S”). These references provide interested students and instructors a chance for more advanced study of morphology and syntax. References to paradigms in the Greek Paradigm Handbook, by E. Geannikis, A. Romiti, and P. T. Wilford (abbreviated as “GPH”).


The Greek Paradigm Handbook provides all essential Greek paradigms in a small, easy-to-use spiral book. -- An inscription. These inscriptions come from the corpus of over 7000 inscriptions that have been recovered during excavations by the Athenian Agora Excavations (agathe.gr). Each inscription can be clicked for a larger view.


For interested instructors and students, a bibliography is provided in AGE to facilitate further study. While it is not expected that beginning students can translate many of the inscriptions (and some of the inscriptions are not complete enough to translate, anyway), these inscriptions nevertheless can serve as a gateway for discussions of a number of broader issues, such as the differences between the Attic and Ionic alphabets; religious practices; administrative practices; burial practices; and the reuse of stone inscriptions as spolia. --


Additionally, the readings include samples of the standard authors famous in the Greek tradition and the New Testament, but also from writings of the same period that are less well known, but which become open to you since you can read Greek. Some background and full citations are always given so that you can pursue more reading in the areas that interest you."





FREE PDF VERSION HERE: https://pressbooks.bccampus.ca/greeklatinroots2/



Greek and Latin Roots: Part II – Greek







Greek and Latin Roots: Part I; Latin 1 

  1. I. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. §1. The Fascination of Words

    2. §2. What is Greek and Latin Roots (GRS 250)

    3. §3. Why Latin and Greek?

    4. §4. The Indo-European Family of Languages

    5. §5. The Unique Nature of English

    6. §6. Dictionary Practice

    7. §7. Latin Pronunciation

  2. II. Chapter 2: The Latin Noun (Declensions 1 & 2)
    1. §8. Form and Meaning

    2. §9. What is a Noun?

    3. §10. Latin Nouns of the First Declension

    4. §11. Interesting Words

    5. §12. Latin Nouns of the Second Declension

    6. §13. Interesting Words

    7. §14. Patterns of Change in Form

    8. §15. Patterns of Change in Meaning

    9. §16. The Legacy of Latin: I. Old English

    10. §17. Chapter 2: Exercises


  1. III. Chapter 3: The Latin Noun (Declensions 3, 4, 5)
    1. §18. Latin Nouns of the Third Declension

    2. §19. Interesting Words

    3. §20. Latin Nouns of the Fourth Declension

    4. §21. Latin Nouns of the Fifth Declension

    5. §22. Summary of the Five Latin Noun Declensions

    6. §23. The Legacy of Latin: II. Middle English

    7. §24. Chapter 3: Exercises


  1. IV. Chapter 4: Simple Latin Adjectives
    1. §25. What is an Adjective?

    2. §26. Latin Adjectives: 1st and 2nd Declension Type

    3. §27. Latin Adjectives: 3rd Declension Type

    4. §28. Interesting Words

    5. §29. Comparative and Superlative Forms

    6. §30. Latin Adverbs

    7. §31. The Legacy of Latin: III. Modern English

    8. §32. Chapter 4: Exercises


  1. V. Chapter 5: Turning Latin Nouns into Adjectives
    1. §33. The Process of Affixation

    2. §34. Adjective-forming Suffixes in English

    3. §35. The Latin suffix -ALIS (> E -al) / -ARIS (> E -ar or -ary)

    4. §36. The Latin suffix -ILIS (> E -ile or -il)

    5. §37. The Latin suffixes -ANUS (> E -an) and -INUS (> E -ine)

    6. §38. The Latin suffix -ARIUS (> E -ary, -arium, -er)

    7. §39. The Latin suffix -OSUS (> E -ous, -ose)

    8. §40. The Latin suffix -LENTUS (> E -lent)

    9. §41. Summary of Adjective-forming Suffixes

    10. §42. Interesting words

    11. §43. Word Analysis

    12. §44. Chapter 5: Exercises

  2. VI. Chapter 6: Turning Latin Adjectives into Latin Nouns
    1. §45. Noun-forming Suffixes in English

    2. §46. The Latin suffix -ITAS (> E -ity); variant -ETAS (> E -ety)

    3. §47. The Latin suffix -ITUDO (> E -itude)

    4. §48. The Latin suffix -ITIA (> E -ice)

    5. §49. Other Noun-forming Suffixes (-IA, -MONIUM)

    6. §50. Interesting Words

    7. §51. Chapter 6: Exercises



  1. VII. Chapter 7: Latin Diminutives
    1. 1. §52. What is a Diminutive?

    2. §53. The Regular Latin Diminutive Suffixes -ULUS and -CULUS

    3. §54. The Variant Latin Diminutive Suffixes -OLUS and -ELLUS

    4. §55. Diminutive Adjective Derivatives in -ARIS

    5. §56. Interesting Words


  1. VIII. Chapter 8: Latin Prefixes
    1. §57. An Introduction to Prefixes

    2. §58. Prefixes Denoting Place

    3. §59. A Summary of Latin Prefixes

    4. §60. Interesting Words


  1. IX. Chapter 9: The Latin Verb System
    1. §61. What is a Verb?

    2. §62. The Two Keys to the Latin Verb

    3. §63. Latin Verbs of the First Conjugation

    4. §64. Latin Verbs of the Second Conjugation

    5. §65. Latin Verbs of the Third Conjugation

    6. §66. Latin Verbs of the Third I-STEM and Fourth Conjugations

    7. §67. Interesting Words


  1. X. Chapter 10: Turning Latin Verbs into Latin Nouns
    1. §68. How Can Verbs Become Other Parts of Speech?

    2. §69. The Perfect Participle as 2nd Declension Neuter Noun

    3. §70. The Perfect Participle as 4th Declension Noun

    4. §71. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -IO as Abstract Noun

    5. §72. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -URA as Abstract Noun

    6. §73. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -OR as Agent Noun

    7. §74. Other Noun-forming suffixes

    8. §75. Chapter 10: Exercises



  1. XI. Chapter 11: Turning Latin Nouns into Latin Verbs
    1. §76. What is a Denominative Verb?

    2. §77. Denominative Verbs in -ARE, -ATUS, and their nouns in -AT -IO

    3. §78. Interesting Words

    4. §79. Turning Diminutive Nouns into Verbs


  1. XII. Chapter 12: Latin Present Participles and Gerundives
    1. §80. How to Recognize a Present Participle (Latin -NT-)

    2. §81. Participial Abstract Nouns in -NTIA (> E -nce or -ncy)

    3. §82. English Derivatives from Latin Present Participles

    4. §83. Interesting Words

    5. §84. English Spelling Irregularities

    6. §85. The Latin Gerundive: the -ND- form

    7. §86. Chapter 12: Exercises



  1. XIII. Chapter 13: Turning Latin Verbs into Latin Adjectives
    1. §87. The Latin suffixes -BILIS (> E -ble) and -ILIS (> E -ile)

    2. §88. Adjectives from the Present Base (-AX, -UUS, -ULUS, -IDUS)

    3. §89. Adjectives from the Perfect Base (-ORIUS, -IVUS)

    4. §90. Interesting Words


  1. XIV. Chapter 14: Compound Words in Latin
    1. §91. What is a Compound Word?

    2. §92. General Principles of Latin Compounds

    3. §93. Compounds Related to FACERE

    4. §94. Other Verbal Compounds

    5. §95. Interesting Words

    6. §96. Chapter 14: Exercises


  1. XV. Appendices
    1. 2. I. Key to Exercises (Latin)

    2. 3. II. Summary of Vocabulary Tables (Latin)









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